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On 3 June , the Montenegrin Parliament declared the independence of Montenegro, [25] formally confirming the result of the referendum.

Serbia did not object to the declaration. It rehabilitated the Royal House of Montenegro and recognized limited symbolic roles within the constitutional framework of the republic.

Montenegro has been in negotiations with the EU since In , the earlier goal of acceding by [35] was revised to Montenegro ranges from high peaks along its borders with Serbia, Kosovo, and Albania, a segment of the Karst of the western Balkan Peninsula, to a narrow coastal plain that is only 1.

The mountains of Montenegro include some of the most rugged terrain in Europe, averaging more than 2, metres 6, feet in elevation.

Owing to the hyperhumid climate on their western sides, the Montenegrin mountain ranges were among the most ice-eroded parts of the Balkan Peninsula during the last glacial period.

The diversity of the geological base, landscape, climate, and soil, and the position of Montenegro on the Balkan Peninsula and Adriatic Sea, created the conditions for high biological diversity, putting Montenegro among the "hot-spots" of European and world biodiversity.

The number of species per area unit index in Montenegro is 0. The Constitution of Montenegro describes the state as a " civic , democratic , ecological state of social justice , based on the reign of Law.

The President of Montenegro Montenegrin: Predsjednik Crne Gore is the head of state , elected for a period of five years through direct elections.

The President represents the country abroad, promulgates laws by ordinance, calls elections for the Parliament , proposes candidates for Prime Minister , president and justices of the Constitutional Court to the Parliament.

The President also proposes the calling of a referendum to Parliament, grants amnesty for criminal offences prescribed by the national law, confers decoration and awards and performs other constitutional duties and is a member of the Supreme Defence Council.

The official residence of the President is in Cetinje. The Government of Montenegro Montenegrin: Vlada Crne Gore is the executive branch of government authority of Montenegro.

The government is headed by the Prime Minister , and consists of the deputy prime ministers as well as ministers. The Parliament of Montenegro Montenegrin: It passes laws, ratifies treaties, appoints the Prime Minister, ministers, and justices of all courts, adopts the budget and performs other duties as established by the Constitution.

Parliament can pass a vote of no-confidence in the Government by a simple majority. One representative is elected per 6, voters.

The present parliament contains 81 seats, with 39 seats held by the Coalition for a European Montenegro after the parliamentary election.

After the promulgation of the Declaration of Independence in the Parliament of the Republic of Montenegro on 3 June , following the independence referendum held on 21 May, the Government of the Republic of Montenegro assumed the competences of defining and conducting the foreign policy of Montenegro as a subject of international law and a sovereign state.

The implementation of this constitutional responsibility was vested in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs , which was given the task of defining the foreign policy priorities and activities needed for their implementation.

These activities are pursued in close cooperation with other state administration authorities, the President, the Speaker of the Parliament, and other relevant stakeholders.

This process will remain in the focus of Montenegrin foreign policy in the short term. The second strategic and equally important goal, but one attainable in a shorter time span, was joining NATO , which would guarantee stability and security for pursuing other strategic goals.

Although it only borders Albania , Bosnia and Herzegovina , Croatia , Kosovo , and Serbia , Montenegro also counts former Yugoslav republics Macedonia and Slovenia as its neighbouring countries, for historical and regional reasons, as well as the neighbours of former Yugoslavia: Austria, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Greece.

An official flag of Montenegro , based on the royal standard of King Nicholas I , was adopted on 12 July by the Montenegrin legislature. On the current flag, the border and arms are in gold and the royal cipher in the centre of the arms has been replaced with a golden lion.

The national day of 13 July marks the date in when the Congress of Berlin recognized Montenegro as the 27th independent state in the world [44] and the start of one of the first popular uprisings in Europe against the Axis Powers on 13 July in Montenegro.

In , the Montenegrin legislature selected a popular Montenegrin traditional song, " Oh, Bright Dawn of May ", as the national anthem.

The military of Montenegro is a fully professional standing army under the Ministry of Defence and is composed of the Montenegrin Ground Army , the Montenegrin Navy , and the Montenegrin Air Force , along with special forces.

Conscription was abolished in The military currently maintains a force of 1, active duty members. The bulk of its equipment and forces were inherited from the armed forces of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro ; as Montenegro contained the entire coastline of the former union, it retained practically the entire naval force.

Montenegro applied for a Membership Action Plan on 5 November , which was granted in December Montenegro is also a member of Adriatic Charter.

This includes 21 District-level Municipalities and 2 Urban Municipalities, with two subdivisions of Podgorica municipality , listed below.

Each municipality can contain multiple cities and towns. Historically, the territory of the country was divided into "nahije".

The economy of Montenegro is mostly service-based and is in late transition to a market economy. GDP grew at However, Montenegro remained a target for foreign investment , the only country in the Balkans to increase its amount of direct foreign investment.

In , the service sector made up The Montenegrin road infrastructure is not yet at Western European standards. Despite an extensive road network, no roads are built to full motorway standards.

Construction of new motorways is considered a national priority, as they are important for uniform regional economic development and the development of Montenegro as an attractive tourist destination.

Current European routes that pass through Montenegro are E65 and E The backbone of the Montenegrin rail network is the Belgrade—Bar railway , which provides international connection towards Serbia.

Montenegro has two international airports, Podgorica Airport and Tivat Airport. The two airports served 1. Montenegro Airlines is the flag carrier of Montenegro.

Initially built in , the port was almost completely destroyed during World War II , with reconstruction beginning in Today, it is equipped to handle over 5 million tons of cargo annually, though the breakup of the former Yugoslavia and the size of the Montenegrin industrial sector has resulted in the port operating at a loss and well below capacity for several years.

The reconstruction of the Belgrade-Bar railway and the proposed Belgrade-Bar motorway are expected to bring the port back up to capacity.

Montenegro has both a picturesque coast and a mountainous northern region. The country was a well-known tourist spot in the s. Yet, the Yugoslav wars that were fought in neighbouring countries during the s crippled the tourist industry and damaged the image of Montenegro for years.

With a total of 1. National Geographic Traveler edited once in decade features Montenegro among the "50 Places of a Lifetime", and Montenegrin seaside Sveti Stefan was used as the cover for the magazine.

Montenegro was also listed in "10 Top Hot Spots of " to visit by Yahoo Travel, describing it as "Currently ranked as the second fastest growing tourism market in the world falling just behind China ".

It was not until the s that the tourism industry began to recover, and the country has since experienced a high rate of growth in the number of visits and overnight stays.

The Government of Montenegro has set the development of Montenegro as an elite tourist destination a top priority. It is a national strategy to make tourism a major contributor to the Montenegrin economy.

A number of steps were taken to attract foreign investors. According to the census, Montenegro has , citizens. If the methodology used up to had been adopted in the census, Montenegro would officially have recorded , citizens.

The results of the census show that Montenegro has , citizens. Montenegro is multiethnic state in which no ethnic group forms a majority. The number of "Montenegrins" and "Serbs" fluctuates widely from census to census due to changes in how people perceive, experience, or choose to express, their identity and ethnic affiliation.

Ethnic composition according to the official data: The official language in Montenegro is Montenegrin. Also, Serbian , Bosnian , Albanian and Croatian are recognized in usage.

Montenegrin, Serbian, Bosnian, and Croatian are mutually intelligible , all being standard varieties of Serbo-Croatian language. According to the census, most citizens declared Serbian as their mother tongue.

Montenegrin is the plurality mother tongue of the population under 18 years of age, although by a very narrow margin — According to the Census the following languages are spoken in the country: Montenegro has been historically at the crossroads of multiculturalism and over centuries this has shaped its unique form of co-existence between Muslim and Christian population.

The Montenegrin Orthodox Church was recently founded and is followed by a small minority of Montenegrins although it is not in communion with any other Christian Orthodox Church as it has not been officially recognized.

Despite tensions between religious groups during the Bosnian War , Montenegro remained fairly stable, mainly due its population having a historic perspective on religious tolerance and faith diversity.

Religious determination according to the census: Education starts in either pre-schools or elementary schools. Children enroll in elementary schools Montenegrin: The students may continue their secondary education Montenegrin: Higher education lasts with a certain first degree after 3 to 6 years.

Elementary education in Montenegro is free and compulsory for all the children between the age of 7 and 15 when children attend the "eight-year school".

Various types of elementary education are available to all who qualify, but the vocational and technical schools gymnasiums , where the students follow four-year course which will take them up to the university entrance, are the most popular.

At the secondary level there are a number of art schools, apprentice schools and teacher training schools. Those who have attended the technical schools may pursue their education further at one of two-year post-secondary schools, created in response to the needs of industry and the social services.

Secondary schools are divided in three types, and children attend one depending on choice and primary school grades:.

The culture of Montenegro has been shaped by a variety of influences throughout history. The influence of Orthodox, Ottoman Turk , Slavic, Central European, and seafaring Adriatic cultures notably parts of Italy, like the Republic of Venice have been the most important in recent centuries.

Montenegro has many significant cultural and historical sites, including heritage sites from the pre- Romanesque , Gothic and Baroque periods.

The Montenegrin coastal region is especially well known for its religious monuments, including the Cathedral of Saint Tryphon in Kotor [73] Cattaro under the Venetians , the basilica of St.

The media of Montenegro refers to mass media outlets based in Montenegro. Television, magazines, and newspapers are all operated by both state-owned and for-profit corporations which depend on advertising , subscription , and other sales-related revenues.

The Constitution of Montenegro guarantees freedom of speech. It is a variation of Mediterranean and Oriental. Montenegrin cuisine also varies geographically; the cuisine in the coastal area differs from the one in the northern highland region.

The coastal area is traditionally a representative of Mediterranean cuisine , with seafood being a common dish, while the northern represents more the Oriental.

The Sports in Montenegro revolves mostly around team sports, such as football , basketball , water polo , volleyball , and handball.

Other sports involved are boxing , tennis , swimming , judo , karate , athletics , table tennis , and chess. Most popular sport is football. Montenegrin national football team , founded at , played in playoffs for UEFA Euro , which is the biggest success in the history of national team.

Water polo is often considered the national sport. The Montenegro national basketball team is also known for good performances and had won a lot of medals in the past as part of the Yugoslavia national basketball team.

Montenegro participated on two Eurobaskets until now. Among women sports, the national handball team is the most successful, having won the European Championship and finishing as runners-up at the Summer Olympics.

Less than half a year later the team won against Norway in the final of the European Championship , thus becoming champions for the first time.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country in Europe. For other uses, see Montenegro disambiguation and Crna Gora disambiguation.

Republic in Southeastern Europe. Adopted unilaterally ; Montenegro is not a formal member of the Eurozone. Duklja , Principality of Zeta , and Tribes of Montenegro.

Italian governorate of Montenegro. Socialist Republic of Montenegro. Serbia and Montenegro and Republic of Montenegro — Serbia and Montenegro and Montenegrin independence referendum, Foreign relations of Montenegro.

National symbols of Montenegro. Armed Forces of Montenegro. Municipalities of Montenegro and List of regions of Montenegro. List of cities in Montenegro.

Largest cities or towns in Montenegro census [49]. A train of Railways of Montenegro. Demographics of Montenegro and Demographic history of Montenegro.

Ethnic groups census. Orthodox Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ, Podgorica 2. Roman Catholic cathedral in Kotor 3. Public holidays in Montenegro.

Црна Гора, Crna Gora ; Albanian: Mali i Zi ; Croatian: The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February , but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory.

The two governments began to normalise relations in , as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is recognized as an independent state by out of United Nations member states.

The official language in Montenegro shall be Montenegrin. Cyrillic and Latin alphabet shall be equal. Serbian, Bosnian, Albanian and Croatian shall also be in the official use.

Retrieved 12 July Retrieved 1 February United Nations Development Programme. The Germans had been very alarmed by the capture of the station and from a conversation on record between Kesselring and Tenth Army commander Gen.

For the third battle, it was decided that whilst the winter weather persisted, fording the Garigliano river downstream of Cassino town was an unattractive option after the unhappy experiences in the first two battles.

The "right hook" in the mountains had also been a costly failure and it was decided to launch twin attacks from the north along the Rapido valley: The idea was to clear the path through the bottleneck between these two features to allow access towards the station on the south and so to the Liri valley.

British 78th Infantry Division , which had arrived in late February and placed under the command of New Zealand Corps, would then cross the Rapido downstream of Cassino and start the push to Rome.

None of the Allied commanders were very happy with the plan, but it was hoped that an unprecedented preliminary bombing by heavy bombers would prove the trump.

Three clear days of good weather were required and for twenty one successive days the assault was postponed as the troops waited in the freezing wet positions for a favourable weather forecast.

Matters were not helped by the loss of Major General Kippenberger, commanding 2 New Zealand Division, wounded by an anti-personnel mine and losing both his feet.

He was replaced by Brigadier Graham Parkinson; a German counter-attack at Anzio had failed and been called off. The third battle began 15 March.

After a bombardment of tons of 1,pound bombs with delayed action fuses, [52] starting at The bombing was not concentrated — only 50 per cent landed a mile or less from the target point and 8 per cent within 1, yards but between it and the shelling about half the paratroopers in the town had been killed.

Torrents of rain flooded bomb craters, turned rubble into a morass and blotted out communications, the radio sets being incapable of surviving the constant immersion.

The dark rain clouds also blotted out the moonlight, hindering the task of clearing routes through the ruins. However, the Germans were still able to reinforce their troops in the town and were proving adept at slipping snipers back into parts of the town that had supposedly been cleared.

On 20 March Freyberg committed elements of 78th Infantry Division to the battle; firstly to provide a greater troop presence in the town so that cleared areas would not be reinfiltrated by the Germans and secondly to reinforce Castle Hill to allow troops to be released to close off the two routes between Castle Hill and Points and being used by the Germans to reinforce the defenders in the town.

However, the defenders were resolute and the attack on Point to block the German reinforcement route had narrowly failed whilst in the town Allied gains were measured only house by house.

On 23 March Alexander met with his commanders. A range of opinions were expressed as to the possibility of victory but it was evident that the New Zealand and Indian Divisions were exhausted.

Freyberg was convinced that the attack could not continue and he called it off. The Allied line was reorganised with the exhausted 4th Indian Division and 2nd New Zealand Division withdrawn and replaced respectively in the mountains by the British 78th Division and in the town by British 1st Guards Brigade.

The German defenders too had paid a heavy price. With the arrival of the spring weather, ground conditions were improved and it would be possible to deploy large formations and armour effectively.

The plan for Operation Diadem was that U. II Corps on the left would attack up the coast along the line of Route 7 towards Rome.

The French Corps to their right would attack from the bridgehead across the Garigliano originally created by British X Corps in the first battle in January into the Aurunci Mountains which formed a barrier between the coastal plain and the Liri Valley.

Improved weather, ground conditions and supply would also be important factors. Once again, the pinching manoeuvres by the Polish and British Corps were key to the overall success.

Canadian I Corps would be held in reserve ready to exploit the expected breakthrough. Once the German 10th Army had been defeated, U. The large troop movements required for this took two months to execute.

They had to be carried out in small units to maintain secrecy and surprise. This was planned to keep German reserves held back from the Gustav Line.

Movements of troops in forward areas were confined to the hours of darkness and armoured units moving from the Adriatic front left behind dummy tanks and vehicles so the vacated areas appeared unchanged to enemy aerial reconnaissance.

The deception was successful. As late as the second day of the final Cassino battle, Generalfeldmarschall Kesselring estimated the Allies had six divisions facing his four on the Cassino front.

In fact there were thirteen. The first assault 11—12 May on Cassino opened at By daylight the U. II Corps had made little progress, but their Fifth Army colleagues, the French Expeditionary Corps, had achieved their objectives and were fanning out in the Aurunci Mountains toward the Eighth Army to their right, rolling up the German positions between the two armies.

By the afternoon of 12 May, the Gari bridgeheads were increasing despite furious counter-attacks whilst the attrition on the coast and in the mountains continued.

By 13 May the pressure was starting to tell. The German right wing began to give way to Fifth Army. On 14 May Moroccan Goumiers , travelling through the mountains parallel to the Liri valley, ground which was undefended because it was not thought possible to traverse such terrain, outflanked the German defence while materially assisting the XIII Corps in the valley.

In , the Goumiers were colonial troops formed into four Groups of Moroccan Tabors GTM , each consisting of three loosely organised Tabors roughly equivalent to a battalion specialised in mountain warfare.

The next 48 hours on the French front were decisive. Cerasola , San Giorgio , Mt. For this performance, which was to be a key to the success of the entire drive on Rome , I shall always be a grateful admirer of General Juin and his magnificent FEC.

Under constant artillery and mortar fire from the strongly fortified German positions and with little natural cover for protection, the fighting was fierce and at times hand-to-hand.

With their line of supply threatened by the Allied advance in the Liri valley, the Germans decided to withdraw from the Cassino heights to the new defensive positions on the Hitler Line.

On the Cassino high ground the survivors of the second Polish offensive were so battered that "it took some time to find men with enough strength to climb the few hundred yards to the summit.

At the end of the war the Poles erected a Polish Cemetery at Monte Cassino on the slope of the mountain. An immediate follow-up assault failed and Eighth Army then decided to take some time to reorganize.

Getting 20, vehicles and 2, tanks through the broken Gustav Line was a major job taking several days. On 24 May, the Canadians had breached the line and 5th Canadian Armoured Division poured through the gap.

On 25 May the Poles took Piedimonte and the line collapsed. The way was clear for the advance northwards on Rome and beyond.

Lucas as commander of the U. VI Corps in February, launched a two pronged attack using five three U. The German 14th Army , facing this thrust, was without any armoured divisions because Kesselring had sent his armour south to assist the German 10th Army in the Cassino action.

A single armoured division, the 26th Panzer , was in transit from north of the Italian capital of Rome where it had been held anticipating the non-existent seaborne landing the Allies had faked and so was unavailable to fight.

At this point, astonishingly, Lieutenant General Clark, commanding the American Fifth Army, ordered Truscott to change his line of attack from a northeasterly one to Valmontone on Route 6 to a northwesterly one directly towards Rome.

This was no time to drive to the northwest where the enemy was still strong; we should pour our maximum power into the Valmontone Gap to insure the destruction of the retreating German Army.

I would not comply with the order without first talking to General Clark in person. On the 26th the order was put into effect. To be first in Rome was a poor compensation for this lost opportunity.

An opportunity was indeed missed and seven divisions of 10th Army [74] were able to make their way to the next line of defence, the Trasimene Line where they were able to link up with 14th Army and then make a fighting withdrawal to the formidable Gothic Line north of Florence.

Rome was captured on 4 June , just two days before the Normandy invasion. Battle honours were awarded to some units for their roles at Cassino. In addition, subsidiary battle honours were given to some units which participated in specific engagements during the first part.

The capture of Monte Cassino came at a high price. The Allies suffered around 55, casualties in the Monte Cassino campaign.

German casualty figures are estimated at around 20, killed and wounded. In the course of the battles, the ancient abbey of Monte Cassino, where St.

Benedict first established the Rule that ordered monasticism in the west, was entirely destroyed by Allied bombing and artillery barrages in February They had to find the materials necessary for crates and boxes, find carpenters among their troops, recruit local labourers to be paid with rations of food plus twenty cigarettes a day and then manage the "massive job of evacuation centered on the library and archive," [79] a treasure "literally without price.

Among the treasures removed were Titians , an El Greco and two Goyas. The American writer Walter M. As Miller stated, this experience deeply influenced him and directly resulted in his writing, a decade later, the book A Canticle for Leibowitz , which is considered a masterpiece of science fiction.

The assertion that the German use of the abbey was "irrefutable" was removed from the record in by the Office of the Chief of Military History.

A congressional inquiry to the same office in the 20th anniversary year of the bombing stated: The final change to the U. The day following the battle, the Goumiers , French Moroccan colonial troops attached to the French Expeditionary Forces, have been accused of rape and murder through the surrounding hills.

Some of these units were accused of committing atrocities against the Italian peasant communities in the region. Immediately after the cessation of fighting at Monte Cassino, the Polish government in Exile in London created the Monte Cassino campaign cross to commemorate the Polish part in the capture of the strategic point.

Later, an imposing Polish cemetery was laid out; this is prominently visible to anybody surveying the area from the restored monastery. The German cemetery is approximately 2 miles 3.

In the s, a subsidiary of the Pontificia Commissione di Assistenza distributed Lamps of Brotherhood , cast from the bronze doors of the destroyed Abbey, to representatives of nations that had served on both sides of the war to promote reconciliation.

In , a memorial was unveiled in Rome honouring the Allied forces that fought and died to capture the city. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The Winter Line and the battle for Rome. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Battle of Monte Cassino order of battle January Battle of Rapido River.

Second Battle of Monte Cassino order of battle February Operation Diadem order of battle. The confusion between the J-3 and L-5 is easy to understand since they are very similar aircraft.

It is possible that the difference in height is explained by the one being a height above the abbey and the other a height above the valley floor.

La Repubblica , Culture section in Italian 3 June Retrieved 24 April A country at war, — A New Look at the Past. Sterling Publishing Co Inc.

Defender of the Realm — 1st ed. Angelo in Theodice e la confusione tra i fiumi Rapido e Gari , Angelo in Theodice and the Confusion between Rapido and Gari rivers.

Archived from the original on 26 January Retrieved 21 February Holt, Rinehart and Winston. A Eulogy for Walt Miller". I went to war with very romantic ideas about war, and I came back sick.

Bio-Bibliographies in American Literature. Rampage on Monte Cassino". The Day of Battle: The War in Sicily and Italy, — The bombardment of Monte Cassino February 14—16, The Friction of War.

Italy and the Battle for Rome Anzio and the Battle for Rome. The Battle for Rome January—June Battle For Monte Cassino. Hapgood, David; Richardson, David [].

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A Question of Honor. The Sangro to Cassino. Archived from the original on 17 November Anatomy of the Battle. The conquest of history. Section III — Italy.

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5 Responses

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